Human rights abuse in Papua has a long history. According to old West Papua news, since 1961 when Papuans sought to build legitimacy and autonomy for their independence, Indonesia carried out military operations to erode the demands of the Papuan people. This operation was built in three stages: infiltration, open attack and consolidation. The Free Papua Organization, a guerrilla group that has been scattered and has minimal strength until now, was formed to demand independence of the West Papuan Nation. In 1967, Freeport received a mining contract signature with Indonesia. In the 1970s, the OPM was formed in Timika, together with mine operations, one of the largest tax contributors to the Indonesian government.
During 1963 until now, there were many civilians killed and displaced, some of them are related to free West Papua movements. Some of the Papuan leaders who were killed included the Mambesak group musician and anthropologist Arnold Ap in the early 1980s, as well as Papua Council Presidium Chair Theys Eluay in 2001. On December 20, 2012, the ELSHAM human rights organization stressed that murder and intimidation would be even more massive as the TNI-Polri joint operation in Papua continued. The act of human rights violations has never ended.
An ELSHAM spokesman at the time, Paul Mambrasar said, “Papuans are still being killed and intimidated and security forces are doing many things to spread fear among people.” Mambrasar explained, in the Safe Operation Matoa 1 in 2011 for example. Its mission is to fight armed criminal groups in Puncak Jaya. But during this operation, 2 Papuans were killed, 4 people were injured, 78 houses were burned by the Ops Task Force, 8 elementary schools and 2 junior high schools could not function and it becomes West Papua conflict. In addition a number of churches cannot hold religious services. Then as a result of people who fled, 37 people died including 13 babies, 7 children and 17 adults.